“The wolf researchers now studying in the wild say the alphas are simply the ones who can do whatever they want, but they don’t drag others down to maintain dominance.”
“A lot of what we believe about aggressive alpha dominance comes from old studies of wolves in captivity.” —Jennifer Arnold
Discipline-based approaches like those followed by Dog Whisperer Cesar Millan are popular but misguided, because they are based on faulty assumptions of wolf pack behavior.
In the wild, wolves are known to lead benevolently. Researchers have noted male wolf leaders sharing chicken with children and mates before eating.
Superb PBS film online: Through a Dog’s Eyes.