And they to war

Is “maleness a genetic disorder”? The human male is, on most measures, more vulnerable than the female. Part of the explanation is the biological fragility of the male fetus, which is little understood and not widely known. A typical attitude to boys is that they are, or must be made, more resilient than girls. This adds “social insult to biological injury.” Culture and class make a difference to the health and survival of boys.

The data presented here have implications for the clinical management of male patients as well as for the upbringing of boys.